What is FPGA?
02
24
FPGA represents the on -site programming door array. In essence, FPGA is a set of interconnected digital sub -circuits that can achieve common functions and also provide very high flexibility. But it is necessary to fully understand FPGA. More subtle differences. This article introduces the concept behind FPGA, and briefly discusses what logical door is, how to program FPGA, and the difference between FPGA and microprocessors in design. FPGA and microcontroller (or, microcontroller can be used, why use FPGA?)Micro controller has become a leading component in modern electronic design. They are cheap and widely used. Now they are often used as a person's first introduction to the electronic world. We naturally continue to use the components we are familiar with, and as the microcontroller becomes stronger and stronger, there is no need to consider alternative solutions to cope with our design challenges. Nevertheless, the microcontroller is built around the processor. There are some basic restrictions in the processor. You need to recognize these restrictions. In some cases, these restrictions need to be overcome. So, when will engineers choose FPGA instead of microcontroller? The answer is attributed to software to hardware. The processor performs the task by performing instructions in order. This means that the operation of the processor is inherently limited: the desired function must adapt to the available instructions, and in most cases, it is impossible to complete multiple processing tasks at the same time. The microcontroller is constructed around a processor, the processor is constructed around a CPU, and a CPU performs one operation at one time. The instruction set is designed to be highly general, and the instructions can now be executed at a high frequency; however, these characteristics do not eliminate the shortcomings of software -based digital design methods. Another choice is a method of hardware. If each new design can be constructed around a digital IC that realizes the function required by the system, it will be very convenient: there is no need to write software, no instruction set restrictions, no delay, only one input pin, output output, output, output The IC of the digital circuit corresponding to the accurate operation of the pin and the necessary operation. This method is unrealistic because it needs to design an ASIC (special integrated circuit) for each circuit board. However, we can use this method to use FPGAS. What is the on -site programming door array?A good name can provide a lot of information. I think the "on -site programming door array" is a very good name. FPGA is a logical door array (eh, it is considered to see below), this array can be the program program (in fact, "configuration may be a better word) People come to complete. Let's take a closer look at these basic characteristics. Logic doors (with, or, different, etc.) are the basic components of digital circuits. Therefore, a digital device designed to achieve high configuration (that is, "on -site programming") consists of many custom -made ways. It is not surprising. However, FPGA is not a huge collection of a single Boors. This will be a very good way to provide configurable logic functions, because it does not use such a fact, that is, public operations can be achieved as a fixed module more effectively. The same principle is also obvious in the field of separate digital ICs. You can buy ICs composed of door, or door, but you don't want to use a single door to build a displacement register. Instead, you will buy a shift register integrated circuit. Therefore, FPGA is not just a door array. This is a series of carefully designed and interconnected digital sub -circuits that can achieve common functions efficiently while providing extremely high flexibility. Digital subcourse is called configurable logic module (CLB), which constitutes the core of FPGA programming logic function: CLB needs to interact with each other and interact with external circuits. For these purposes, FPGA uses a programmable interconnection matrix and input/output (I/O) module. FPGA's "program" is stored in the SRAM unit, affecting the function of CLB, and controlling the establishment of a connection path. Detailed explanation of the internal structure and operation of CLB requires a whole article (if it is not multiple articles). The general idea is that the CLB includes a multi -way reusrator that searches tables, storage elements (triggers or registers), and allows CLB to perform Boolean operations, data storage and arithmetic operations. The I/O module consists of various components to facilitate communication between CLB and other components on the board. These devices include pull/drop -down resistor, buffer and anti -phase device. On -site programming logic (or in other words, how to program FPGA?)How do we turn a CLB array into a digital circuit and make it accurately complete the function we want? At first glance, this seems to be a quite complicated task. In fact, FPGA is often considered more difficult than micro -controller programming. However, FPGA development does not need to completely understand the CLB function or internal interconnect, just as the micro -controller development does not require a thorough understanding of the processor's assembly language instructions or internal control signals. In fact, FPGA is misleading as an independent component. FPGAS is always supported by development software, and the software executes the complex process of transforming hardware design into a programming position that determines the programming position of interconnection and CLB behavior. Hardware description languagePeople have created language so that we can "describe" hardware; they are called (very appropriate) hardware description language (HDLS), the two most common are VHDL and Verilog. Although there are obvious similarities between HDL code and the code written in advanced software programming language, the two are fundamentally different. The software code specifies a series of operations, and the HDL code is more like a schematic diagram. Using text to introduce components and create interconnection. in conclusionThe basic characteristics of programming logic devices and the potential advantages of the system of the processor -based system. Hyundai FPGA is a complex high -performance device. It may be a bit daunting for those who are accustomed to collecting data, control ASIC and performing mathematical operations. However, it may be found that in certain applications, the improved performance and multifunctionality are worthy of design work.resolution, stability and anti -interference ability of the identification system. At this point, the virtual Digital Technology proposes the high -precision application of deep learning algorithms in the visual of the machine. In this context, the DLIA industrial defect detection plays a decisive role.The DLIA industrial defect detection By constructing a deep neural network model, the system can automatically learn and extract features from massive training samples, thereby achieving precise identification of complex and fine characters on the chip surface. Even in the face of image quality fluctuations caused by light change, angle deviation, or surface reflection, deep learning algorithms can be quickly adapted and made accurate judgments.With the deep fusion of machine vision and deep learning, the degree of automation and accuracy of chip surface character recognition has been greatly improved, significantly improved production efficiency, reducing human error risk, and providing details for subsequent product quality management and process optimization of process optimization. Reliable data support.This deep learning -enabled machine visual technology breaks through the limitations of traditional character recognition in accuracy and speed. Even the most subtle scratches, pollution or deformation can be discovered and recorded in time, which greatly improves the level of surface quality control level It effectively reduces the rate and repairs in the production process.The surface character recognition of the chip, as an important application scenario of machine vision technology in the microelectronics manufacturing industry. With its excellent performance of fusion and deep learning, it has become one of the key driving drivers for the high -quality development of the industry. New era of industrial quality inspection.For more electronic conponents,please refer to:https://www.ciselec.com/en/products.html
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Surface character recognition of chip, high -precision application of machine vision
02
22
In the field of modern micro -electronics manufacturing, the surface character recognition of chip is a vital process. It is related to multiple key links such as product information traceability, anti -counterfeiting verification and quality control. With the advancement of science and technology, especially the development of machine vision and deep learning technology, this problem that originally relied on artificial or traditional optical recognition methods has been efficient and accurate.Machine vision technology captures small character images on the surface of the chip through precise industrial cameras, and combines advanced image processing algorithms to analyze the collected data in real time. However, the surface characters on the chip are often tiny and tightly arranged, putting forward extremely high requirements for the resolution, stability and anti -interference ability of the identification system. At this point, the virtual Digital Technology proposes the high -precision application of deep learning algorithms in the visual of the machine. In this context, the DLIA industrial defect detection plays a decisive role.The DLIA industrial defect detection By constructing a deep neural network model, the system can automatically learn and extract features from massive training samples, thereby achieving precise identification of complex and fine characters on the chip surface. Even in the face of image quality fluctuations caused by light change, angle deviation, or surface reflection, deep learning algorithms can be quickly adapted and made accurate judgments.With the deep fusion of machine vision and deep learning, the degree of automation and accuracy of chip surface character recognition has been greatly improved, significantly improved production efficiency, reducing human error risk, and providing details for subsequent product quality management and process optimization of process optimization. Reliable data support.This deep learning -enabled machine visual technology breaks through the limitations of traditional character recognition in accuracy and speed. Even the most subtle scratches, pollution or deformation can be discovered and recorded in time, which greatly improves the level of surface quality control level It effectively reduces the rate and repairs in the production process.The surface character recognition of the chip, as an important application scenario of machine vision technology in the microelectronics manufacturing industry. With its excellent performance of fusion and deep learning, it has become one of the key driving drivers for the high -quality development of the industry. New era of industrial quality inspection.For more electronic conponents,please refer to:https://www.ciselec.com/en/products.html
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The future development direction of China's new material industry -semiconductor materials
01
24
1、Silicon waferThe silicon wafers are located in the upstream of the semiconductor industry chain. They are the main raw materials of semiconductor devices and solar cells. They are mainly used in two areas of photovoltaic and semiconductors. The downstream demand has continued to grow in recent years. From the perspective of in the field, the production capacity of photovoltaic silicon wafers is mostly concentrated in my country. Leading companies such as Central and Longji have strong strength, and the production technology level is the world's leading.For photovoltaic silicon wafers for photovoltaic silicon wafers, the production process is more complicated, the application scenarios are more, and the market value is higher. The mainstream 12 -inch silicon wafers in the market have not yet reached large -scale production in my country, and they are seriously dependent on imports. Domestic companies represented by Shanghai Silicon Industry are trying to break the technical barriers and have a wide range of domestic replacement space.(1) Wide in the downstream application of silicon wafers, is an important material for semiconductor devices and photovoltaic batteriesSilicon is a good semiconductor material. It has good high temperature resistance and good radiation resistance. It is particularly suitable for making high -power devices. With silicon as the raw material, a silicon rod is made by pulling single crystal, and then cutting is formed to form a silicon wafer. Silicon wafers are mainly used in the two major fields of semiconductor and photovoltaic. Semiconductor silicon wafers are higher than photovoltaic chips in aspects of crystals, shapes, size, and purity. (99.99%-99.9999%), semiconductor silicon wafers are about 9N-11N (99999999%-99.99999999%). The production process is more complicated and the downstream applications are more wide.Semiconductor silicon wafers are located at the top of the industrial chain. They are mainly used in integrated circuits, separate devices and sensors. They are key materials for manufacturing chips. They affect the development of lower -reaches automotive and computers and other industries. It is the cornerstone of the semiconductor industry chain.(2) Photovoltaic silicon wafers: China's production capacity is leading, leading enterprises are strongThe photovoltaic industry is one of the national strategic emerging industries. Photovoltaic silicon wafers are located on the upper reaches of the photovoltaic industry chain. In recent years, its demand is rising. According to CPIA forecasts, the global photovoltaic market volume will reach 150GW in 2021. It has a wide range of vastness. Market and development prospects.my country is the world's largest producer of photovoltaic single crystal silicon wafers in the world. According to the statistics of the China Nonferrous Metal Industry Association Silicon Branch, as of the end of 2019, my country's single crystal silicon wafers have 115GW, accounting for 97.6%of the world's. Leading enterprises Longji and Central occupy more than 50%of domestic single -crystal silicon wafers, and in the process of continuous expansion production capacity, new forces companies have also accelerated production and expanding production.According to the company's communiqué statistics in 2020 my country's single crystal silicon wafers will be about 190GW, and it is expected that the domestic single crystal silicon wafer production capacity will reach 240GW by the end of 2021.(3) Semiconductor silicon wafers: serious dependence on imports, and domestic alternative space is broadBenefiting from the technological progress of semiconductor products and the increase in the category of downstream -related electronic consumer products, the demand for semiconductor silicon wafers has increased year by year, and the scale continues to increase. The scale of the global silicon wafer market in 2020 will reach about $ 11 billion, and the market prospects of semiconductor silicon wafers will be broad.Due to the high technical barriers of semiconductor silicon wafers, the global semiconductor silicon wafers are monopolized by giants today, with high concentration, and manufacturers in mainland China are small. In 2020, the top five global silicon wafer providers, SHIN-ETSU, Sumco (SUMCO), GlobalWafers, Taiwan, Silitronic, and SKSILTRON The market share of more than 80%, the market share of Shanghai Silicon Industry, local manufacturers in my country, is about 2.2%, and the volume is small.The larger the size of the silicon wafer, the higher the production efficiency of the unit wafers. Since the 1970s, the silicon wafer has developed in a large size. Today, the largest mass -produced silicon wafer size in the world today is 300mm, which is a 12 -inch silicon wafer. The demand for 12-inch wafers has risen in recent years. According to Japan's victory, the CAGR of 12-inch wafers can reach 5.1%from 2020-2024. Global semiconductor silicon wafers are mainly concentrated in industry giants. my country ’s semiconductor silicon wafers start late and have a backward development. Only a few companies have 200mm (8 -inch) silicon wafer productivity. my country’ s 12 -inch silicon wafers All depend on imports.Making large silicon wafers has high purity requirements for silicon, and also has very high requirements for the processing process of chamfering and precision grinding. my country's technology level is backward, and the large -scale production of 12 -inch silicon wafers has not been achieved. In 2018, the Shanghai Silicon Industry achieved a large -scale sales of 12 -inch silicon wafers, breaking the situation of 0 large -sized silicon wafers. The 12 -inch silicon wafers are still the mainstream of the silicon wafer market today. Domestic manufacturers have the opportunity to catch up. The domestic alternative of large -sized silicon wafers still has a large space.In order to promote the localization of the important material of semiconductor silicon wafers, the Chinese government has also introduced a series of policies to support industrial development, promote the research and development of large -sized silicon wafers, and promote the development of the semiconductor industry.(4) Important listed companiesThe business scope of domestic silicon wafers is widely covered, and photovoltaic and semiconductor silicon wafers are often involved. The leading enterprise of photovoltaic silicon wafers is strong in Central and Longji, and the leading leadership is stable; domestic manufacturers of semiconductor silicon wafers are accelerating the catch -up. Companies such as ultra -silicon semiconductors have also entered the field of large silicon wafers.China is the world's largest semiconductor terminal market. With the continuous expansion of Chinese chip production capacity, the market size of my country's semiconductor silicon wafers will accelerate, and the development prospects of large silicon wafers are broad.2、silicon carbide (SIC)Silicon carbide is the third -generation semiconductor material. It has very superior performance and is an important raw material for power devices. In recent years, countries have invested a lot of human and material resources to develop related industries. The threshold of the silicon carbide industry is relatively high, and my country's production technology level is relatively backward. At present, the industrial structure presents the characteristics of the United States. Only Cree's company occupies 62%of the global share of silicon carbide chips.The development prospects of the silicon carbide market have been widely developed. In recent years, it has continuously infiltrated in the fields of electric vehicles, photovoltaic, rail transits, and smart grids. It has strong downstream demand and the market size has continued to expand. my country is also layout of the entire silicon carbide industry chain. The number of relevant patents has continued to rise this year. big.(1) The third -generation semiconductor material, new energy and 5G cornerstoneSilicon carbide is currently the most mature wide -forbidden band semiconductor material, and it is also a representative material for the third -generation semiconductor material.Silicon carbide materials have many advantages: stable chemical performance, high thermal conductivity, small thermal expansion coefficient, wear -resistant high pressure. Products with silicon carbide materials can reduce the volume of 50%and reduce energy loss by 80%compared with products with the same electrical parameters. Due to these characteristics, countries around the world attach great importance to silicon carbide materials. Masters on the major semiconductor giants have also invested heavily in developing silicon carbide devices.With the maturity of technical technology and the decline in preparation costs, it has been applied to various power devices. In recent years, the penetration rate of silicon carbide power devices has continued to rise in the field of new energy vehicles. Important raw materials.(2) Europe and the United States occupy the key location of the SIC industry chainThe silicon carbide production process is divided into three major steps: single crystal growth, extension layer growth and device manufacturing, corresponding to the three major links: industrial chain base, extension, device and module. There is a high technical threshold in the silicon carbide industry.It has a long period of R & D time. The United States, Europe, Japan and other countries and regions have continuously improved the preparation technology of silicon carbide single crystals and related equipment for research and development and manufacturing. Big advantage.(3) The development of new energy vehicles and photovoltaic industries promotes the growth of silicon carbide marketSilicon carbide is an ideal material for extreme power devices. It is resistant to high temperature and high pressure, high energy conversion efficiency, and broad application fields. At present, there are four main application scenarios in silicon carbide power devices: 1) New energy vehicles: main inverters in the motor drive system; 2) photovoltaic: photovoltaic inverter; 3) rail transit: power semiconductor device; 4) smart grid) smart grid) smart grid) : Solid -state transformer, flexible AC transmission, flexible DC transmission, high -voltage DC transmission and power distribution system.With the further development of silicon carbide power devices, its penetration rate in various fields has continued to increase. According to YOLE, the market space of global vehicle SIC power devices is expected to reach 1.93 billion US dollars by 2024, corresponding to the compound growth rate of 2018-2024 compound growth rate Reacked 29%. According to the Forecast of Tianda Henda Prospectus, the proportion of silicon carbide power devices in photovoltaic inverters will reach 50%in 2025, and the proportion of silicon carbide devices in rail transit will gradually increase.Driven by the demand for electric vehicles and photovoltaic inverters, according to OMDIA forecast, emerging markets of silicon carbide and nitride power semiconductor are expected to exceed $ 1 billion in 2021; according to IHS Markit data, the size of the silicon carbide power device market in 2018 About 390 million US dollars, benefiting from the growth of new energy vehicle demand and the development of the photovoltaic industry. It is expected that the market size of silicon carbide power devices will exceed US $ 10 billion by 2027, and the growth momentum of the silicon carbide industry will be sufficient.(4) The demand for silicon carbide is strong, and the industrial system is gradually deployedmy country is the largest application market for silicon carbide, but at present, my country's silicon carbide industry is still very incomplete. Most of the domestic research and development and manufacturing of silicon carbide materials and power devices are mostly research and development and manufacturing, and lack of large -scale production capabilities.At present, China has a low market share in the field of silicon carbide, but it has gradually cultivated all aspects of the industrial chain, which is expected to achieve better development. The state also attaches great importance to the development of the industry. It promotes its development through the 863 plan and the National 02 major special projects, and includes silicon carbide substrates in the 13th Five -Year "Strategic Emerging Industry Key Product Catalog".3、High -pure metal sputtering targetSplane targets are one of the core materials of integrated circuits. In recent years, it has developed towards the direction of high splattered and high -pure metals. Its downstream application scenarios mainly include semiconductors, panels, and solar batteries. With the development and improvement of the consumer electronics terminal market, the downstream demand of high-pure metal sputtering targets has continued to rise. The compound growth rate of the global target market in 2013-20202020 As soon as 14%, the market size gradually expanded.The industry has high barriers to sputtering targets. The United States and Japanese companies have core technologies and monopolize the global market. my country's sputtering target industry starts late and is relatively backward, but its market demand is the world's leading worldwide, and domestic alternative space is large. Domestic enterprises are gradually breaking through the technical bottlenecks and strive to break the unfavorable situation of the US -Japan monopoly high -end target market.(1) The core material of the integrated circuitSplane is one of the important technologies for preparing film materials. Splash refers to the use of ions generated by the ion source to form a high -speed ion beam flow after accelerating the agglomeration in vacuum. Exchange, the atoms on the solid surface leave the solid and deposit on the base surface. The bombarded solid is the raw material of the sputtering method with a sputtering method, which is called sputtering target. In the integrated circuit, the medium layer, conductor layer and even protective layer of the unit device must use sputtering coating process.Ultra -high -pure metal and sputtering targets are an important part of electronic materials. The sputtering target industry chain mainly includes metal purity, target manufacturing, sputtering coating, and terminal application. The target manufacturing and sputtering coating link is a key link in the entire sputtering target industry chain. It has high requirements for process levels and high entry barriers. The target is now developing towards the direction of high splattered sputtering rate, grain crystal control, large size, and high -pure metal. At present, the main high -purity metal sputtering targets include aluminum targets, titanium targets, pupa targets, tungsten titanium targets, etc., which are the core materials for preparing integrated circuits.(2) Consumer electronics promotes the scale of the target market to expandDownstream production of high -purity sputtering target productsThe industry's market capacity has gradually expanded in recent years: 1) Semiconductor industry: With the continuous growth of semiconductor demand in the field of terminal consumption in the terminal consumption of smartphones and tablets, the capacity of the semiconductor market has further increased, and there are many types of sputtering targets in the semiconductor industry.Large amount, stable downstream market growth will effectively promote the growth of sales scale of sputtering targets; Tablet display industry: In recent years, LCD display has gradually become the world's mainstream display technology, and it has gained a wide range of display markets in the plane display market. application. In order to ensure the uniformity of the large -scale membrane layer of the flat display, the sputtering technology is increasingly used to prepare these membrane layers.Since the 1990s, the rapid development of the terminal application market such as consumer electronics has promoted the development of the high -purity sputtering target industry, and the market size has grown at a high speed. From 2013-2020, the global splash target market size is expected to rise from US $ 7.56 billion to 19.563 billion US dollars, with a compound growth rate of 14.42%(3) The development and production of high -end targets are mainly concentrated in the United States and JapanFamous foreign target companies have precipitated for decades in terms of target development and production. Globally, the number of enterprises participating in all aspects of the sputtering target industry chain is basically distributed in pyramids. The technical threshold of high -purity sputtering target manufacturing links, large equipment investment, and relatively small number of enterprises with large -scale production capacity. Distributed in the United States, Japan and other countries and regions.(4) High -end targets have strong domestic demand, and domestic alternative space is largeAccording to estimates, domestic demand in 2019 accounted for more than 30%of the global target market, while local manufacturers supply about 30%of the domestic market. High -end targets are mainly imported from the United States, Japan and South Korea. The domestic target market has at least ten times the import alternative space. EssenceIn terms of semiconductor user targets, according to statistics from the China Electronic Materials Industry Association, the domestic semiconductor market size was 1.615 billion yuan in the domestic semiconductor field. It is estimated that by 2025, the market size of domestic wafer manufacturing will increase to US $ 217 million, and the use of sputtering targets in the packaging field will increase to US $ 118 million, totaling 335 million US dollars, about RMB 2.345 billion EssenceAffected by the historical and technological restrictions, my country's high -purity sputtering target industry has started late. It is still a newer industry. The main high -purity sputter target manufacturers are invested by state -owned capital and a few private capital. Compared with the sputtering target produced by internationally renowned enterprises, there is still a considerable gap in the production level of Chinese sputtering targets, and the market influence is very limited. The country promotes the development of the industry through various policies.The "Guidelines for the Development of the New Materials Industry" released in 2016 proposed that it is necessary to strengthen the research and development of high -purity metal sputtering target production technology. At the end of 2018, the tax exemption period of imported targets ended, and the possibility of opening domestic targets for domestic targets.At present, the country is gradually breaking through the threshold for key technology and breaking the core technology of sputtering target material the US -Japan monopoly and products need to be imported backward. At present, some products of target manufacturers in China have reached the international advanced level, and the quality of product quality has been recognized by domestic and foreign downstream enterprises. By building factories near the downstream enterprise factories, the price of target materials may be 10%-15%lower than foreign manufacturers. The necessity and strategic significance of replacement are obvious.For more electronic conponents,please refer to:https://www.ciselec.com/en/products.html
0
China’s major chip breakthrough, the United States simply cannot stop it
01
16
Against the backdrop of the United States’escalating technological blockade against China, China’s innovation capabilities and independence in the semiconductor field have attracted much attention. On November 28, a new generation of domestic CPU, Loongson 3A6000, was released in Beijing, which attracted widespread attention from the industry and media. What are the characteristics of this processor's performance, architecture and applications? What does it mean?Loongson 3A6000 performanceLoongson 3A6000 is the latest product of the Loongson series processors. It uses a 28nm process technology, has 4 cores, is clocked at 2.5GHz, supports dual-channel DDR4-3200 memory, integrates Vega 8-core graphics, and supports PCIe 3.0 and SATA 3.0 , USB 3.0 and other interfaces. According to CCTV News, the Loongson 3A6000 has been professionally tested and its overall performance is equivalent to Intel's 10th generation Core i3-10100 quad-core processor, ranking among the international mainstream processors.This level of performance is undoubtedly a huge improvement for Loongson. From the Loongson One in 2002 to today's 3A6000 processor, Loongson researchers have continued to catch up. The gap with mainstream products on the market has been more than 20 times different at the beginning, and now the gap is getting smaller and smaller, almost on an equal footing. This is a recent achievement. A microcosm of China's CPU development in the past 20 years. Moreover, the performance of Loongson 3A6000 still has a lot of room for improvement, because it has not yet used the most advanced process technology. If it can break through the U.S. technology blockade and use a 7-nanometer or lower process, its performance will be even more amazing. .Loongson 3A6000 architectureAlthough the performance of Loongson 3A6000 is amazing, what is even more gratifying is that it adopts the command system and architecture developed by Loongson. It has complete autonomy and is not restricted by foreign patents. It does not need to look at the faces of foreign manufacturers like before. Waiting for authorization from others before further development can be carried out. This is of great significance to the self-reliance and self-reliance of China's chip industry.Loongson 3A6000 uses the Dragon architecture independently built by Loongson, which is an architecture based on reduced instruction set (RISC), parallel to the X86 and Arm architecture, and has the characteristics of efficiency, flexibility, and scalability. Dragon architecture has formed a complete Linux basic software system, supporting a variety of domestic operating systems, such as Kirin, Euler, Hongmeng, etc., as well as various application software, such as browsers, office software, programming tools, etc., providing users with a wealth of choice and convenience. Dragon architecture also supports virtualization technology and can run X86 and Arm software on Loongson processors, achieving compatibility and interoperability of software and hardware.Application of Loongson 3A6000Loongson 3A6000 not only has strong performance and independent architecture, but also has a wide range of applications, covering various fields, such as education, scientific research, industry, military, aerospace, etc. Loongson 3A6000 has been successfully used in domestic supercomputers, domestic servers, domestic industrial computers, domestic notebooks, domestic tablets and other products, providing strong support for the country's information security and technological innovation. Loongson 3A6000 is also expected to enter more terminal devices, such as smartphones, smart TVs, smart cars, etc., to bring better experience and services to users.The significance of Loongson 3A6000The release of Loongson 3A6000 is a new milestone for China's CPU and a new height for China's chip industry. It demonstrates China's innovation capabilities and independence in the semiconductor field, breaks the U.S. technological blockade against China, and adds confidence and impetus to China's rise against the odds on the chip road. Loongson 3A6000 not only provides strong support for the country's information security and technological innovation, but also provides users with more choices and convenience, contributing to the development and progress of society.We believe that with the continuous improvement and promotion of Loongson 3A6000 and the continuous updating and upgrading of Loongson series processors, Chinese CPUs will occupy a place in the international market and form a "three-legged" situation with X86 and Arm, and even "one rider" "Jue Chen" is also promising. We also expect that Loongson 3A6000 can lead the new wave of China's chip industry, inspire more innovations and breakthroughs, and add luster to China's dream of becoming a technological power.For more electronic conponents,please refer to:https://www.ciselec.com/en/products.html
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The domestic semiconductor industry has entered a critical period of domestic substitution
12
20
Core pointSilicon wafers are important raw materials for the upstream of the semiconductor industry, accounting for about 40 % of the value of all semiconductor raw materials.at present,8 -inch and 12 -inch silicon wafers are the most mainstream silicon wafers, and demand will continue to migrate to large size.The barriers of semiconductor silicon wafers include: technical barriers, key materials and equipment barriers, customer certification barriers, funds and scale barriers, and talent barriers. After 2020, the semiconductor silicon wafers entered the prosperity cycle, and the market size reached a record high, reaching $ 13.8 billion in 2022.The production capacity of mainland China has expanded rapidly, and the demand for domestic silicon wafers has increased. In 2022, the mainland market size reached 13.8 billion yuan.The global semiconductor silicon market is an oligopoly monopoly pattern, and the top five manufacturers account for 86.6%of the market share. Mainland Chinese silicon wafers are at a critical stage of realizing domestic alternatives, and some head companies have initially appeared.Under the current geopolitics, the trend of localization of semiconductor silicon wafers is more obvious.Currently, many domesticThe 8 -inch/12 -inch production line has been put into production one after another, and is in the stage of production capacity climbing and customer certification. 1. Classification of semiconductor silicon wafers and industry barriersSilicon wafers are important raw materials for the upstream of the semiconductor industry. By conducting lithography and etching of silicon wafers, most semiconductor products can be created.At the same time, in the process of semiconductor manufacturing, the silicon wafer is the most proportion of raw materials, accounting for about 40 % of the value of all raw materials, and then electronic gas13%, 12%of the light cover, 12%of the photorettic glue, 7%CMP material, 6%wet chemicals, and a target of 2%. The purity requirements of semiconductor silicon wafers are high, the standard is11 or more (99.9999999999%) have extremely high requirements for crystal defects, surface flatness, smoothness, performance cleanliness, and impurities pollution.The semiconductor silicon wafer manufacturing process is complicated and there are many process links. The upstream electronic -grade polysilicon materials need to be purified and processing with a series of high technical thresholds such as stagry, grinding, polishing, and cleaning.Finally, the manufactured semiconductor silicon wafer wafers will be used for semiconductor manufacturing.From the angle of size, the semiconductor silicon wafer product can be divided into4 inches, 6 -inch, 8 -inch, 12 inches and other specifications.The larger the size of the silicon wafer, the more difficult the manufacturing process, but the lower the cost of the unit chip, which is generally used in a more advanced semiconductor system.8-inch silicon wafers are mainly used to produce various types of MCUs, analog chips, sensors, power chips, radio frequency chips, etc.; 12-inch silicon wafers are mainly used for 28-90nm mature process and advanced processes below 28nm.Storage chip.at present,8 -inch and 12 -inch silicon wafers are the most mainstream silicon wafers and the most important demand growth points.In 2021, the shipping area of 12 -inch silicon wafers accounted for 71%, 8 -inch silicon wafers accounted for 23%, and small size accounted for about 6%.From the perspective of trend, small -sized silicon wafers have a large cost advantage in the manufacturing of separate devices, and the future demand remains stable; the cost performance of 8/12 inch silicon wafers will increase with the maturity of the process.The penetration rate of inch silicon wafers will continue to increase.From the classification of manufacturing process, semiconductor silicon wafers can be divided into grinding pieces, polishing tablets, fire -reducing tablets, outer extensions,SOI film.Among them, grinding tablets are the first silicon wafers obtained by a series of machining processes of polysilicon materials, which are often used for manufacturing dividing devices. Polishing sheets are made of polishing on the basis of grinding tablets.The substrate is used to produce degenerate films, outer extensions, SOI films, etc.Different types of silicon wafers are generally used in the production of different chip products, but there are also overlap applications. Semiconductor silicon wafer leading enterprises have a relatively obvious first -mover advantage and scale effect, and the industry barriers are high:The first is technical barriers.Semiconductor silicon wafers have high requirements on multiple indicators such as size, purity, and cleanliness, and have a high degree of technical professionalism. The process of each link needs to be accumulated for a long time.Especially with the continuous evolution of process and silicon wafers, the requirements for performance indicators and technical levels are getting higher and higher.The second is the barrier of key materials and equipment.Electronic -grade polycrystalline is the most important raw material upstream of silicon wafers, occupying the cost of supporting materials25%.There are only a few manufacturers that can produce electronic -level polysilicon in the world that can produce electronics -grade polysilicon. There are still a few in Germany, South Korea, and the United States. At present, domestic manufacturers still rely on overseas manufacturers. However, domestic manufacturers have broken through high -purity mass production preparation technology, and the domestic rate has continued to improve.The most critical of the production equipment of silicon wafers is single -crystal furnace and polishing equipment. It has long been monopolized by the United States, Japan, South Korea, and German manufacturers for a long time. Domestic equipment has made breakthroughs in critical links.Among them, single crystal furnaces are generally developed or extended by silicon film manufacturers, and it is difficult to buy equipment for domestic manufacturers.Third, customer certification barriers.Semiconductor manufacturers have strict requirements on the quality of silicon wafers, very cautious about suppliers and high viscosity.Silicon film manufacturers need to go through more links and time to enter downstream customer suppliers. Generally, they need to be tested, tried, evaluated, and batch supplies downhill.3-5 years.Fourth, funds and scale barriers.The semiconductor silicon wafer manufacturing process, high production equipment, and large investment in large -scale production and construction.For example, oneThe investment in the 8 -inch production line of 100,000 pieces/monthly capacity is 700 million yuan, and the 12 -inch production line investment of 300,000 pieces/monthly capacity is as high as 4.6 billion yuan.Due to the large investment investment, the low profit of silicon film manufacturers and high operating pressure in the early stage, it is necessary to make a certain scale before profitable.Fifth, talent barriers.The R & D and production of semiconductor silicon wafers involves multi -disciplinary fields such as physics, thermodynamics, chemistry, and quantum mechanics, and composite talents with comprehensive professional knowledge are needed.At the same time, the various production technology knowledge of semiconductor silicon wafers needs to accumulate for a long time, and the same demand for experienced talents is also large.2. Global market structure and development of domestic enterprisesSemiconductor silicon wafers are the key raw materials of the semiconductor industry. The market size is directly affected by the degree of prosperity of the semiconductor industry, which is also periodic.In 2018, the demand for semiconductor technology brought about by the development of new generation of information technology such as 5G, the Internet of Things, and smart cars broke out. The sales revenue of semiconductor silicon wafers exceeded 10 billion US dollars.After 2020, the epidemic impacted the global digital transformation accelerated, and the demand for the semiconductor industry was strong, driving the semiconductor silicon wafer to enter the prosperity cycle.As the world's largest semiconductor consumer market, the wafer capacity has continued to expand.According to statistics, more than a quarter of the newly added wafer capacity in the past three years has come from mainland China.The expansion of the wafer plant and the continuous high production rate of capacity utilization have increased the demand for domestic semiconductor silicon wafers.In 2021, the semiconductor silicon film market in mainland China reached 11.9 billion yuan, an increase of 39%year -on -year, and exceeded the tens of billions of mark for the first time, and reached 13.8 billion in 2022.In the market competition pattern, due to the high barriers of the semiconductor silicon wafer industry in terms of technology, capital, and scale, the global semiconductor silicon wafer market has basically formed an oligopoly monopoly pattern.63.8%, the top five manufacturers account for 86.6%.Among them, the market proportion of SHINETSU (SHINETSU) market accounts for 27.5%, Japan's Sumco (Sumco) market share is 21.5%, Taiwan ’s global wafer market share is 14.8%, Germany’ s Shichuang electronic market share is 11.5%, South KoreaThe market share of SK Siltron reached 11.3%, the market share of French SOITEC was 5.7%, and the market share of Shanghai Silicon Industry in mainland China was 2.2%.Looking back at the development history of global silicon wafers, and the effective path of rapid development through mergers and acquisitions.Because the production of semiconductor silicon wafers has a strong scale effect, mergers and acquisitions can quickly achieve production capacity expansion.At the same time, manufacturers can improve market concentration, enhance the bargaining capacity of the industrial chain to maintain profitability.Mainland Chinese silicon wafers are at a critical stage of realizing domestic alternatives. Some head companies have initially emerged and the competitive pattern is more intense.Under the current geopolitical and international trade environment, semiconductor silicon wafers are used as key raw materials for semiconductors, and the supply of localization is more obvious.For example,In 2020, the Global WAils of Taiwan Silicon Film manufacturers in China acquired German silicon film manufacturers Shichun Electronics, but was eventually blocked by the German government in 2022.Therefore, mainland China semiconductor manufacturing enterprises have gradually selected domestic silicon wafers suppliers, and the localization space of silicon wafers is broad.Beginning in 2020, domestic manufacturers have begun to build a large -scale 8 -inch and 12 -inch semiconductor production line. At present, multiple production lines have been put into production, and they are in the stage of production capacity climbing and customer certification.For more electronic conponents,please refer to:https://www.ciselec.com/en/products.html
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